Process





Step#2: Another perimeter that needed to quantify: people store memories differently. There are many reasons that memory retrieval can differ from one person to another.


For instance, two friends can experience the same event at the same time, but come away with different memories of what happened?


The ability to retrieve memories can be affected by person health, so a Body Mass Index (BMI) calculations are integrated into MedTech model. Each dementia patient will need to be assessed against BMI before it is possible to help understand how they retain memories.


BMI Calculations:





The body mass index or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass and height of an individual. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m², resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.



Step#3: MedTech, iteration mathematical model, analysis three essential aspects of memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval.

  1. Encoding: how to get information into the brain.
  2. Storage: How do people retain information over time.
  3. Retrieval: How do people retrieve information from the brain.

Differences in each or a combination of these aspects might help explain why memories differ from one person to another.



Procedure for recalling memories





Prototype



Medtech is designing an artificial intelligence model (AI) with an embedded learning algorithm, which has a multi-site spatiotemporal code which is designed to mimic specific memory-related neural ensemble firing patterns. To restore, and improve function via facilitation of the memory encoding using the patient's own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes of their memories.


The model uses a series of processes by which the hippocampus encodes memory items via spatiotemporal firing of neural that ensembles that underlines the successful encoding of short-term memory.


The model-derived electrical stimulation to the same CA1 location during this phase, which delayed match-to-sample testing facilitated short-term memory.


Peri-event histograms of putative CA1 and CA3 neural firing in response to behavioral events in the delayed match-to-sample task.



Two firing patterns: CA3, CA1.







Two firing patterns: CA3, CA1.



The chart: The mean firing rate within the sample presentation to the (sample response and match presentation to match response) phase across 167 putative CA1 and 191 putative CA3 neurons recorded for the anterior hippocampus across all subjects.


A model of the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural firings computerized to predict activity in the patterns of CA1 neurons during the encoding.


The model-derived electrical stimulation to the same CA1 location during this phase, which delayed match-to-sample testing facilitated short-term memory.


The model predicted a significant improvement of 30% in memory recall. Trying to recover more than 30% is proving more challenging, and further research is necessary.


Peri-event histogram of putative CA1 and CA3 neural firing in reposes to behavioral events in the delayed mach-to-sample task. The mean firing rate within the (sample presentation to sample response) and (match presentation to match response) phase across 167 putative CA1 and 191 putative CA3 neurons recorded from the anterior hippocampus across all subject.


Single delayed mach-to-sample trials were sorted according to correct versus error outcome, and averaged to yield mean per-event histograms of the task-specific firing rate.


Memory is the mental process of retaining and recalling information or experiences. It is in the process of taking events, or facts and storing them in the brain for later use. They are three types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.


In Step#5: in this part of the study, we will focus on the sensory, and short-term memory in order to recalibrate and retrieve memory loss by dementia patient’s
.


Sensory memories are momentary recordings of information in our sensory systems. They are memories evoked through a person's five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch. Although sensory memory is very brief, different sensory memories last for different amounts of time.



Iconic memory is visual sensory memory, and it lasts for less than a second. Echoic memory is auditory sensory memory, and it lasts for less than 4 seconds. For example, Echoic memory is information that is new and useful for a short period, such as where the car is parked or was are the keys.


Short term memory (also called working memory) is the recording of information that currently used. However, short term memory only lasts about twenty-seconds. The human memory span can contain at any time seven chunks (any letter, word, digit, or number) of information.


When the brain receives information signals, this information can be repeated over and over until stored, therefore creating a "phonological loop.” However, unless a repetition of the information occurs, it will be lost.


The patient has an implant placed in the main artery between the hippocampus and hypothalamus to record their brainwaves signals, receive new information.


The ephaptic coupling plays a significant role in the propagation of the slow hippocampal periodic activity. New study results indicate that a neural network can give rise to sustained self-propagating waves by ephaptic coupling, suggestion a novel propagation mechanism for neural activity under normal physiological conditions.


How the Prototype Works How the Prototype works


This prototype implant would look inside a person’s brain and see their memories and to retrieve memories that have they have pushed away. The implant provokes brain cells that create an electrical field which triggers nearby neurons in order to pass on a message. The implant is placed into the patient’s main artery between the hippocampus and hypothalamus to record their brainwaves signals, that receive new information.


The implant has five folding senses each section has a multi-site spatiotemporal code designed to mimic specific memory-related neural ensemble firing patterns.


A catheter is used to insert the fold down senses to enter the brain via the common carotid artery. Them they are maneuvered into the posterior cerebral artery, with feeds the brain’s hippocampus.


When in position, the catheter is turned to the right to unfolded the swiveling, extending arms into their working positions. Once in position, the catheter can be detached and removed.


The implant has state-of-the-art iteration mathematical modeling techniques, with an embedded learning algorithm. It also has a multi-site spatiotemporal code designed to mimic specific memory-related neural ensemble firing patterns. Can restore, and improve function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient’s own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes.







Implant to retrieve memory loss



This slide shows all the elements incorporated in the fully open section of the tiny folding sense, inserted into the implant. There is five similar folding sense attached to the implant.


The neurosurgeon can turn the catheter clockwise to open the sensors or ant clockwise to fold.







Umbrella folding system



This slide shows the folding mechanism, which allows each sensor to be fully closed, enabling easier access via a small insertion in the groin.


Attached to the implant is a catheter which the surgeon to maneuver the prosthetic easily through the main artery in between the hippocampus and hypothalamus.


Once in position, the neurosurgeon can open the senses are by turning the catheter clockwise to opened and activated.







Procedure to recall memory



Restore, and improve function via facilitation of memory In this slide shows the implant sensors fully open and active to restore, and improve function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient's own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes.


The implant transmits the patient's diagnostics to an external personal computer to be analyzed by the neurosurgeon.


The neurosurgeon can reset the firing pattern to correspond with the diagnostics transmitted from the implant.







Two firing patterns: CA3,CA1 + Artificial Intelligence Model



This side shows the two firing patterns and the artificial intelligence Model.


CA1 and CA3 neurons recorded for the anterior hippocampus.


Were as the artificial intelligence model, the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural firing is computerized to predict activation pattern of CA1 neurons during the encoding.





How to get the brain remembering where you've heading





According to our model predictions, we can retrieve 30% of memory loss, which can help a patient remember their house number and zip code but not its location.


Medtech is developing new spatial navigation algorithm to help the patient navigate back to their home location.


The model is incorporating a technique, known as brainwaves aid navigation, which is to become a finite element of the MedTech model update.





This technique based on research that found that the brain appears to implement a GPS for spatial navigation however, it not fully understood how it works. Although scientist now suggests that rhythmic fluctuations in the brain activity, so-called theta oscillations, play a role in this process.

The reactivation of the brain activity for different object-location pairs occurred at different points of time during the theta cycle. Therefore, theta oscillations may coordinate the reactivation of different memories, what more, may help distinguish between competing memories.

Subsequently, the MedTech model will be designed to record neuronal activity during a navigation task in virtual reality.

The house number and zip code can trigger spatial navigation to locate operations in a virtual environment, as the brain reactivates the location-specific activity patterns.

Should the Medtech models be able to distinguish between competing memories? It would be a significant step forward in disorientation and short-term memory loss although it is essential to gain a full understanding of the underlying neuronal mechanism.

This technique could benefit patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders in the future.